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Integrated Flood Resilience Program (IFRP)

1. KEY PROJECT INFORMATION

Implementing partner (IFRC/ National Society/ies): Geographical coverage: Type of intervention (sector/area):

BDRCS

Nilphamari and Lalmonirhat District

Multi-sector (DRR, Health and WASH, Livelihoods, NSD)

Expected start date:

Expected duration:

Number of people to be reached:

01-03-2018

3 years

The total number of direct beneficiaries of the project will be approximately 8,000 whereas the catchment population who will be indirect beneficiaries are approximately 16,000 people.

Project Implemented by:

Project Supported by:

Project Funded by:

BDRCS

IFRC

MoFA (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Korea)

 

2. PROJECT SUMMARY
The project will scale up the community resilience capacity of the disaster vulnerable households through Bangladesh Red Crescent Society’s via a community led approach.

The Project will be implemented at 4 communities of Lalmonirhat and Nilphamari districts.

Goal:

Strengthen community resilience for effective and efficient response to multi-hazards and climate-induced phenomena

Objective:

To build capacity of community to reduce the loss of life, livelihood and wellbeing in recurrent disaster and climate change risks through Community Based Approach.

Key Outcomes:

  • Communities are capable to effectively respond to flood and adapt to changing climate
  • Most vulnerable households have improved livelihood and shelter to withstand small scale flood
  • Community people have increased access to appropriate and sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene practice

BDRCS capacity is enhanced to deliver scaled up DRR programmes for disaster risk reduction.

3. CONTEXT ANALYSIS

Bangladesh, covering an area of 148,460 sq km in the Southern Asia with more than 168 million inhabitants, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Large rivers flowing from the Himalayas, such as Ganges from the West and the Jamuna from the North make the country an abode of deltas. The large rivers later converge to the Meghna to the South which subsequently discharges to the Bay of Bengal along with about 700 rivers and distributaries that crisscross the country. Two thirds of Bangladesh’s territory are less than 5 meters above sea level. The population is expected to rise to 259.9 million by 2100. Furthermore, Bangladesh is ranked 142 of 187 on the Human Development Index, indicating a low level of human development. Among the countries affected by climate change, Bangladesh, with its strong exposure to natural hazards, is ranked 5 out of 171 in the World Risk Index. Moreover, as per Inform Index for Risk Management Bangladesh is ranked as 24th vulnerable country out of 191 to manage the humanitarian and disaster risks. It denoted that, Bangladesh is highly exposed to natural disaster where hazard Vs exposure ration is too high with a low quality of institutions and infrastructure management capacity. The lack of coping capacity is high with great number of vulnerable groups.

As well as human lives, the economy of the country is the most vulnerable to the direct impacts of the intensified natural disasters. According to the Asian Development Bank, 31.5% people are yet under poverty line which is the highest in South Asia. As a great number of people (66%) live in the rural areas and directly live on agriculture, they are nonetheless more vulnerable to flood and similar disasters. Being a developing country with a huge population it often becomes challenging for the country to manage such colossal disasters with limited resources. The most vulnerable population of the country suffer from poverty, epidemic diseases, dislocation, migration, etc.

AnchorAnchor Overview of the current situation

Flood is one of most chronological and devastating disasters for Bangladesh. and it has been affecting the country throughout history, especially during the years 1966, 1987, 1988, 1998 and 2004 and 2017. The 2007 South Asian floods affected a large portion of Bangladesh. According to prevention web Bangladesh suffered total economic losses due to different hazards of 285,400 million US$ in the last 10 years, where average annual losses by flood is more than 64%. Almost all sectors of the country, i.e agriculture, shelter, transport, land, education, forests, industries and other livelihoods of people, have been affected by flood. Though there is no statistical evidence but the frequency of flooding in Bangladesh has increased greatly in the 20th century.

There is indication that the inter-annual variation of floods and the areal extent of big events have increased since 1950. In line with this the northern part of Bangladesh is highly exposed to flood and climate change effect. The recent years’ devastation evidently shows that flood is still a matter of grave concern for Bangladesh. Moreover, recent analysis show, around 1.3 & 3.7 million people were affected and 216,010 were displaced by flood of 2014 & 2016, respectively. In terms of capacity and knowledge, flood affected people have very limited access to resources and scientific knowledge about coping with flood; however, they have traditional practices but no cumulative approach. According to a study by Hossain, Uddin, Rokanuzzaman, Miah and Alauddin, the most affected sector by flood is agriculture and properties whereby diarrhea and typhoid are the prevalent diseases.

The number of people at risk has been growing each year and the majority is in developing countries like Bangladesh with extreme poverty levels making them more vulnerable to disasters. Moreover, discriminatory and explosive practices such as taking high interest loan rate is quite common in the flood affected districts of Bangladesh, which make them even more exposed to the generational cycle of poverty. The recent experience of flood shows the same negative coping mechanism which causes them in further disaster risk.

Changing climate has significant impact on the Bangladesh and its footprint already been noticed in different area. In year 2017, Bangladesh faced two mega floods and even excessive rainfall in the months of October, which is quite unusual for Bangladesh. In some point August flood has accede the previous 20 years flood level which is beyond the prediction of the communities and cause huge damage of the lives and livelihood leading to have more disaster resilient intervention.

The Government of Bangladesh has several social protection programs or social safety nets in place to provide food security in the event of a disaster. Some of these programs, such as the Vulnerable Group Development program, are implemented over a period of 2 years. Immediate disaster assistance is provided through the Vulnerable Group Feeding program. However, this program is focused on the poor and not necessarily those most adversely affected by the disaster. The government also emphasizes on local level management by organizing and strengthening the local institutions and employing them from disaster response to risk reduction.

The South Asian country of Bangladesh , located next to India, is prone to flooding due to being situated on the Ganges Delta and being the basin for several tributaries flowing down into the Bay of Bengal.

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Information

Lalmonirhat

Nilphamari

Population (BBS, 2011)

1,256,099 (1)

1,834,231 (2)

Density (BBS, 2011)

1,127/km² (3)

1,297/km² (4)

Area (BBS, 2011)

1,241 km² (1)

1,580 km² (2)

Administrative (BBS, 2011)

Division: Rangpur

Upazila: 5 (Patgram, Hatibandha, Aditmari, Kaliganj and Lalmonirhat Sadar)

Division: Rangpur

Upazilas: 6 (Nilphamari Sadar, Saidpur, Jaldhaka, Kishoreganj, Domar, Dimla)

Main rivers (Banglapedia)

Teesta, Dharla, Rotnai

Teesta, Jamuneshwari, Buri Teesta, Ghagat

Flood in July 2017 (NDRCC)

Yes (4)

Yes (4)

Flood in August 2017 (NDRCC)

Yes (4)

Yes (4)

RCRC operations in Mega Floods 2017 (IFRC Monsoon Floods Appeal)

Yes (0)

No (4)

Situation overview during Mega Floods 2017 (NDRCC, 27/08/17)

% affected upazilas: 100

No. of affected families: 102,750 (3)

% affected upazilas: 100

# of affected families: 41,535 (1)

Vulnerability to flood

Lalmonirhat, residing in the banks of Teesta – one of the most overflowing rivers, faces medium to severe flooding almost every. Lalmonirhat is also vulnerable to river erosion due to strong currents of Teesta and Dhorla rivers.

More than 100,000 people in char areas of Teesta and Dharala rivers were trapped in flood water in Lalmonirhat in 2017. At least 36 villages of 16 unions in Hatibandha, Kaliganj, Aditmari and Sadar upazilas of the Teesta basin remained trapped in floodwaters for more than 5 days. The water level of Teesta River was 18 centimetres above the danger level while Dharala River water flowed above 13 centimetres above danger mark. Serious river erosion triggered in many areas of the district following sudden decrease in water flow.

With the highest level of education among all districts in the country, Nilphamari still suffers loss of lives and livelihoods due to flood. Protection and improvement of dams in river Teesta is highly essential. There was a crop loss of 56,601 hectares (NDRCC) due to floods in 2017.

Several villages under eight unions of Nilphamari's Dimla and Jaldhaka upazilas were submerged in heavy rainfall and increased water flow from upstream. Moreover, aman rice, maize and chilli of at least 5,000 hectares went under water and fish of more than 500 ponds were washed away. Many of the affected people took shelter at local school and college premises and Dantir Protection Dam of river Teesta.

5. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES

The BDRCS and IFRC has mandate to collect the sex, age and disability, disaggregated (SADD)D data for each of its programme and reporting. To ensure the gender equity BDRCS has gender policy and its implementation in all stages of the programme and process. BDRCS has always ensure the environmental safety and climate change measure in their programme design and implementation. Under the mitigation work, project will allow the flood responsive low fuel cost stoves, which will lead to ensure the less workload of women and it would be low carbon emission measure as well.

The project will supplement few cross cutting issues, which BDRCS always follow during implementation of the projects. It is also worth noting that, to address the issues BDRCS has separate guideline and expertise.

Community Engagement & Accountability

Community engagement and accountability (CEA) will be ensured through provisioning relevant information to disaster-affected communities and creating accessible feedback mechanisms. While information needs are assessed on the ground, appropriate messages will be disseminated among the wider population through reachable communication channels. BDRCS and IFRC will maintain coordination with the Communication with Communities (CWC) working group under the HCTT. The operation will involve participatory community selection process and implementation mechanism. A community mobilization plan will be developed to establish processes that will increase beneficiaries' decision-making capacity on key aspects of the operation. A communications plan will be in place to cause behavioral change in areas of water and sanitation, and disaster risk reduction interventions. In addition to setting up community information centers with appropriate equipment will ensure easy and critical time access to information. A complaints and response mechanism (CRM) will be established and activated with proper training to staff and volunteer. That will be employed for communities to raise valid concerns and receive a rresponse about the programme. In addition to developing information, education and communication (IEC) materials, a FAQ for different stakeholders will be prepared and disseminated. This can better inform decisions as programming moves into the recovery stage. The intervention of the DRR activities will be community-led to ensure they are engaged in their own recovery.

Gender and Diversity

In the event of the disaster, it is important to note that women, girls, boys and men are all affected differently and have unique needs and capacities of resilience. The operation will integrate gender and child protection throughout to provide services appropriate to the needs of affected people. While the VCA will identify the most vulnerable in the disaster, all reports according to age and sex. Sex and age disaggregated data allows us to understand who is more vulnerable and also what type of service provision must be ensured like special groups of people. The VCA will also identify the needs for information for gender diverse groups and records of gender based violence in the community. To reduce the risk of the special groups like elderly, children and PWDs special initiative will be taken through the project activities, in addition to this regular program of BDRCS will support to continuous learning and improvement of the gender and diversity issues.

In addition to this women’s rules will be specified through separate guideline of the project. To empower the women special activities will be taken throughout the project period and evaluated over time.

Environmental protection

The CBDRR project is being designed considering the team of no harm policy, the environmental consideration activities have been designed to contribute towards preserving flora and fauna and healthy environmental conditions during the implementation phase. The project considered the future climate risk and issues related to environmental threat while will develop the community plan of action. The project will further analyze the climate change related risks and come up with specific alternative solution in terms of capacity building of the community by diversifying the livelihood options and disseminating knowledge. Furthermore, during implementation of structural measure (for instance shelter & latrine construction) CCA will be the key consideration with environmental aspects. The project IEC materials will be updated with information related to environment conserving issues. Communities are encouraged to plant flood resilient tree and crops that will contribute positively in sustaining biodiversity and prevent environmental depletion. The project has also focused to promote use of indigenous knowledge with practitioner’s expertise in the implementation of activities in an eco-friendly manner. The project will also contribute mitigation measure by reducing carbon emission by introducing the high efficiency cooking stoves.
 

6. ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Key activities include:

  • Conduction of VCA exercise and wellbeing analysis

  • Development of community based flood early warning system and contingency plan

  • Community Disaster Response Fund (DREF) initiative in flood areas for emergency response and DRR actions

  • Established community Gathering Place

  • Awareness raising session at community and school on Disaster preparedness and DRR

  • Train volunteers on different skills for response preparedness and logistics support

  • Sanitation Marketing/linking with Market for livelihood and WASH facilities

  • Provide housing grants to the most vulnerable HHs (60 in each community)

  • Mobile health camp with medicine support, PHAST ToT and session, CBHFA training for community

  • Small scale mitigation project for reduce disaster and climate risk

  • Training and orientation on Gender & diversity, Elderly in Disaster risk reduction, inclusion of PWDs

  • Offering fellowship/internship with universities

  • Community consultation/advocacy session on agriculture, livestock, mother and child nutrition, women reproductive health, general health (bi monthly)

  • Sharing of best practice and exchange learning with relevant stakeholders including community

  • Establish CRM at communities

  • External evaluation including lessons learned workshop

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